Can I avoid going to court and still get a dissolution of marriage (divorce) in Florida
If Attorney Gruskin represents you, neither party will have to attend court if your case is uncontested. Uncontested means the parties agree on all issues of their case and each party cooperates to get the case over with. All documents will be transmitted to the Court electronically and neither party needs to be present in court for anything. Click here for Florida Divorce Pricing or to Email Florida Divorce Questions to the Attorney.
How long does a divorce take in Florida and does it matter who files first
It doesn't matter who files first. How long the case will take depends on whether it is contested or uncontested. An uncontested divorce can take as little as four to five weeks once all of the necessary paperwork is completed.An uncontested divorce means that both parties agree on absolutely everything such as child support, timesharing with minor children, division of property and debts and alimony, if any. And it also means that both parties cooperate to get the case over with.
If the matter is contested, that is there are one or more issues which the Court has to decide, such as child support or alimony, etc., the case can take about 4-6 months or more to be heard. In the Florida counties where the Courts are extremely busy it can take a year or more. Hopefully at some point short of a trial the case can be settled through compromise by both parties or through the mediation process.
How can I get a dissolution of marriage (divorce) in Florida
In general one party needs to state that the marriage is "irretrievably broken" in other words it cannot be put back together through marriage counseling or any other means. Generally speaking, few people ever contest whether the marriage is irretrievably broken. Thus, in general you can get a divorce simply by asking for one and there is little that your spouse can do about it.
Also, one party to the marriage must be a Florida resident for the six month period immediately preceding the filing of the petition for divorce. There is nothing else that you need to prove to get a divorce in Florida. This is different than some states where for example you have to prove adultery or violence or some other grounds.
If I am a Florida resident but temporarily reside out of state, can I still consider myself a resident for purposes of getting a divorce
That issue will be up to the Court but if the Judge decides that you are truly a Florida resident who is for example working for a corporation outside the state, or visiting elsewhere for a short period, etc., you will probably still be considered a Florida resident and can get a divorce. On the other hand if the Court determines that you really have no intention of coming back, or that you realistically are permanently living elsewhere although you may travel back and forth to Florida from time to time, you probably will not be considered a Florida resident. Also, if you are in the military, the fact that you are stationed outside of Florida does not detract from your Florida residency.
What if I am not married to the parent of my child
First, you need to establish paternity through scientific testing which can be ordered by the Court. Then child support and timesharing/visitation issues will be decided pretty much the same as in a Florida divorce case.
Are same sex divorces handled any differently than other divorces
What if I cannot find my spouse? Can I still get a divorce
Yes. After you conduct a diligent good faith search which is required by Florida law. (There is a standard list of reasonable steps that you need to take to find your spouse such as writing to the Department of Motor Vehicles and talking to family and friends who may know the whereabouts of your spouse. You also have to publish the matter in an appropriate newspaper for the appropriate period of time and then you will be able to get a divorce. However, the Court will not have the ability to order any alimony for example, until such time as your spouse is found and served with the papers.
What is the first step towards getting divorced in Florida
If you meet the residency requirements and your marriage is irretrievably broken, a Petition for Dissolution of Marriage is filed which outlines any claims that you have for things like child support, timesharing with minor children, alimony, division of property and debts, etc. In general, the other party has to be served with the papers by a process server and then the requirements of various court rules and procedures come into effect. Also, where children are involved, Florida law now requires that the parties complete a "Children and Divorce" type seminar.
What Happens After Filing A Florida Petition For Dissolution Of Marriage (Divorce)
Once the Petition For Dissolution of Marriage is filed, your spouse is entitled to receive it. Until such time as it is properly served upon your spouse, they have no obligation to answer the Petition or do anything at all. The law requires that the Petition be properly served on your spouse. This means that a Sheriff or process server needs to bring it to your spouse and confirm that your spouse was served. There are exceptions to the requirement of personal service such as “substitute service”. That means that the process server can leave the Petition at the usual place of abode of your spouse in the hands of a co-tenant of your spouse who is 15 years of age or older.
Once served your spouse generally speaking has twenty days to file an Answer or responsive pleading, or a default judgment can be entered against them. So you cannot simply mail or hand to your spouse the Petition. (Unless your spouse for example would sign a document waiving formal service of process which they have a right to). And if it is an uncontested situation where everybody agrees on everything and each party is going to cooperate to get it done, there need not be formal service with a process server or Sheriff. Your spouse can sign an appropriate document waiving formal service instead of being served by the Sheriff or process server. If this happens, the case can proceed very quickly. As mentioned, once served, a Petition must be responded to in twenty days. (in writing) Your spouse can respond to what you have in the Petition and also file a Counter-Petition asking for whatever they may want. If your spouse fails to answer the Petition within the twenty day deadline, a default judgment can be entered against your spouse and you can proceed directly to court to testify before the judge about what you are seeking.
There is also a provision in the law where instead of formally serving your spouse, you can publish the matter in the newspaper. It would have to be published on four consecutive occasions in a proper legally recognized newspaper or publication. The circumstances where you can do this include a situation where your spouse is truly missing. (You have to sign a sworn Affidavit of Diligent Search indicating that you have really tried to find them and cannot.) The search, among other things would include, speaking to family and friends, and employers/former employers, etc. You cannot publish just because your spouse doesn’t choose to talk to you or because you don’t feel like looking hard to find them. Another circumstance where you can publish instead of personally serving is where your spouse is in a foreign country, or your spouse affirmatively conceals their whereabouts.
If you publish the matter and your spouse has not answered by the deadline indicated in the notice that gets published, you can get a default judgment and then proceed directly to court. Note however that in a Florida dissolution of marriage (divorce) where you have published, the judge, as a general proposition, can only grant a divorce. In other words, the court cannot for example award alimony. There may however be circumstances where the court could award property or assets to you if you have published.
What if I do not want a divorce but do want the Court to determine child support and/or alimony
A Petition can be filed to accomplish this.
Can one lawyer represent both parties and does each party always have to have a lawyer
One lawyer should not represent both parties. In general it is impossible to represent the interests of two people who may in fact have different goals. Do not rely on your spouse's attorney to protect your interests as that lawyer is getting paid to be your adversary. On the other hand, if an agreement can be reached, then the spouse who does not have a lawyer can still communicate with the other parties attorney to work out details and hence avoid hiring a lawyer. (as long as they recognize that that attorney is their adversary.)
What is the best route to take
You will save a lot of time, money and aggravation if you can get an agreement with your spouse on all issues such as child support, timesharing with minor children, division of property and debt and alimony if any. Obviously this is easier said than done but if you can do it, a lawyer can draw up a settlement agreement and the matter will be fairly inexpensive compared to a contested Florida divorce. If you cannot agree on one or more issues you will need to go to Court for the Judge to decide these issues. Try and sit down with your spouse and work out details. It may take several meetings to conclude matters. If you have a spouse that thinks they're going to run the show, remind them that only the Judge runs the show. And without threatening, remind them that this matter can be done the easy way or the hard way.
What if my spouse is violent or harasses me
In an extreme situation of course the police must be called. Aside from, that, in Florida there is a procedure for getting a restraining order if your spouse is guilty of certain conduct, without notifying your spouse of your efforts to get one. (consult the clerk of court or a lawyer) If the Court does issue a restraining order on this basis ("ex parte") there will be a hearing within a number of days after issuance of the restraining order where your spouse can come in to Court and defend themselves. This procedure can be used even before the divorce process begins. Once the divorce process begins, the Court can order your spouse out of the house if things are bad enough (especially where children are involved) as well as order your spouse to stay away from you. These matters have priority in the Court system and do not have to wait until the absolute end of the case.
What if I need temporary alimony or child support, or a distribution of assets before the final hearing in my case, but my spouse will not pay
There is a procedure for going into Court almost immediately after the case is filed to get an order of temporary child support, alimony, or other relief, such as timesharing with minor children until such time as the case can be fully heard. Also, you can apply for a distribution of some of the marital assets while the case is pending, if there are extraordinary circumstances.
What if I cannot afford a lawyer to represent me
Aside from the possibility of Legal Aid representation if your income is such that you qualify for their help, there may be a chance that the Court will order your spouse to pay your attorneys fees. This can occur if your spouse earns substantially more than you. If this is the case, you should talk to an attorney about getting paid if and when the Court orders your spouse to pay your fees. Be aware however, that if you have money for a lawyer, although your money may be less than your spouse's, that the attorney is unlikely to agree to this as the court may well not order that you get reimbursed for fees. Also, attorneys like everyone else don't like to do work unless they get paid quickly. The chance that a lawyer will agree to wait for their money increases if there's money or assets which they can place a lien on or if your spouse has a longstanding job with a healthy paycheck and you have no money for fees.
Are divorce cases heard by a judge or jury
How do I get child support, alimony or timesharing with minor children modified once it is set
As to child support one must show a "substantial change in circumstances". What this often means is that your spouse's income has increased markedly, or that your income or financial situation has changed substantially. Durational alimony can be modified upon a substantial change of circumstances pursuant to Florida Statute 61.14, although the length of the award cannot be modified, except under exceptional circumstances, and cannot exceed the length of marriage. Bridge the gap alimony is not modifiable as to amount or duration. Rehabilitative Alimony can be modified upon a substantial change of circumstances pursuant to Florida Statute 61.14, or upon non compliance with the rehabilitative plan, or completion of the plan. It should be noted however that where alimony is terminable upon remarriage, that a court may reduce or terminate the alimony when the recipient is residing with someone in a "supportive" relationship. There are numerous factors that the court will consider in deciding whether a "supportive" relationship exists, such as whether the couple hold themselves out as husband and wife, and the nature of their financial dealings. (Durational alimony terminates upon death of either party, the re-marriage of obligee, or substantial change of circumstances pursuant to Florida Statute 61.14 Bridge the gap alimony terminates upon death of either party or re-marriage of the obligee Rehabilitative alimony terminates upon substantial change of circumstances pursuant to Florida Statute 61.14, or upon non compliance with rehabilitative plan, or completion of the plan) A modification of timesharing with the minor children will probably require showing a substantial change in circumstances.
How can mediation help my case
Many many cases are resolved at mediation. It is a lot cheaper to have a mediator involved with a case than to pay lawyers to do the great deal of work necessary to prepare for trial before the Court. Mediators cannot force a settlement on anyone but they can certainly use their skills to show people what would be a reasonable settlement, and further advise them as to what the Court may do if their is a trial. Sometimes it is just good to have a neutral party that both sides will listen to assist with the settlement negotiations. (Ideally, the mediator should be a lawyer well-versed in divorce issues, or at least a Florida Supreme Court certified mediator) You often shouldn't go to mediation though until the discovery process (depositions and the exchange of financial documents) has provided you with a complete picture of your family finances (including your spouse's) and all aspects of, and the strengths and weaknesses of your case.
Should I represent myself
Unless you have legal training or the case is extremely simple it is best to have a lawyer advise you. Without legal training it is difficult to know what your rights and responsibilities are. If you do not know what your rights are, you may not ask for them or you may agree to things that you don't need to agree to. Also, without a complete knowledge of the rules of evidence, you may not be able to get certain testimony or evidence admitted into Court and you may therefore lose on a particular aspect of your case, despite the fact that you were "right". Judges cannot help people practice law, and cannot relax the rules of evidence in Court just because you are not a lawyer.
Can I use my maiden name after the divorce
You need to put in the petition for divorce in Florida that you wish to be restored to your maiden name. The Court can order that for example, as long as you are not changing your name to avoid creditors.
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Here's a checklist of the most common issues in a Florida divorce.
One party must be a Florida resident for at least the six month period immediately preceding the filing of the divorce petition.
Custody of children. (the terms "custody" and "visitation" are no longer used in Florida, "Timesharing" is what needs to be determined, i.e. which days/nights does each parent get with the children)
Whether there's going to be Shared Parental Responsibility. (i.e. both parents take part in the decisions affecting their minor children)
Child support (including health insurance and day care expenses). Can be dependent on a number of factors including income of each party and how much time a parent spends with the children.
Alimony (there are numerous types of alimony, such as bridge the gap, durational, lump sum, permanent, and rehabilitative. See the Alimony Section above for a more detailed explanation of each type.)
Division of property acquired during marriage (including pension/401k type programs, and businesses) and division of debts. Note that the assets to divide would usually not include inherited property, property brought into the marriage by one spouse, or property acquired via a gift from a third party solely to one spouse. (even if such gift is during the marriage.) But one exception to this principle may be where the property has been put into both names.
Disposition of marital home. (is the home going to be sold? is one party going to buy the other out? is one party going to get the home in return for other assets? is one party going to raise the minor children in the home?)
Relocation issues (i.e. a parent wishing to permanently leave the area with the minor children.
College expenses for children - Courts cannot order a party to pay for a child's college, but if the parties come to an agreement that one party is to provide such support, then the Court can enforce the agreement.
Restoration of maiden name.
Must be full financial disclosure of income, assets, liabilities and expenses by each party to the other. At a minimum under the rules each party needs to provide the other with a sworn financial affidavit. (except in simplified dissolutions) Also, a child support guidelines worksheet needs to be submitted to the Court where kids are involved.
Issue of whether your spouse is in such superior financial shape compared to you such that your attorney fees should be paid by him/her. (assuming you can't afford the fees)